Grammar : Mood
MOOD is the mode or manner in which the action denoted by the verb is represented.
We usually use a verb to make a statement of fact or ask a question.
• I write a letter to my parents every month.
• May I know your name, please?
But a verb can be used to express a command.
• Stand up.
• Come here.
• Pay your fees.
At the same time, a verb can be used to express a supposition.
• If I were the Prime Minister of this country, I would reduce the income-tax ceiling.
• If you were I, you would do the same thing.
These different modes or manners in which a verb can be used to express an action are called MOODS.This word comes from the Latin word ‘modus’ which means manner.
There are three moods in English.
1. Indicative mood.
2. Imperative mood.
3. Subjunctive mood.
1. Indicative mood:
This type is used just to indicate the fact or to raise a question as follows.
i. To make a statement of fact.
• We purchase the news-paper daily.
• My daughter goes to school by train.
• This university has more than 20,000 students.
• Your letter was posted yesterday.
• You are great.
• He is an intelligent student.
• Mr. Clinton is the Chairman of this company.
• This road has been blocked due to repairing works.
• Our tour program stands cancelled.
• I could not move out of my office today due to heavy work.
• All are welcome.
ii. To ask a question.
• Where do you purchase your news-paper?
• How are you?
• Where is your brother?
• What did happen to your car?
• Who is your music master?
• Why can not you come with us now?
• Is this your pen?
iii. To express a supposition that is assumed as a fact.
• If he is the leader of this group, he deserves to be rewarded. (Assuming as a fact that he is the leader)
• If my brother goes to Japan, he will get me this ROBOT. (Assuming as a fact that my brother goes to Japan)
• If you come to this university for your higher education, you will reach the top level.
(Assuming as a fact that you come to this University).
A verb which makes a statement of fact or asks a question or expresses a supposition which is assumed as fact is in the indicative mood.
2. Imperative mood:
This type is used to express
i. A command:
• Get up.
• Go out.
• Come here.
• Wait for your boss.
• Close the doors.
• Kneel down.
• Follow him.
• Read quickly.
ii. An exhortation.
• Take care of your health.
• Be aware of pick-pockets.
• Try your level best to score the maximum marks.
• Take this test once.
iii. An entreaty or prayer.
• Bless us.
• Have mercy upon us.
• Forgive me.
A verb which expresses a command, an exhortation, an entreaty or prayer is in the Imperative Mood.
This occurs in two occassions.
a.Present Subjunctive Mood.
b.Past Subjunctive Mood.
a. The Present Subjunctive Mood occurs
i. In few traditional phrases where it expresses a wish or a hope.
• God blesses you.
• God saves the king.
• Heaven helps us.
ii. To express a desire, an intention or a resolution.
• I move that Mr. Clinton be appointed the next president of the organization.
• It is suggested that the Mount road be closed for a week for the maintenance work.
• They preferred that the annual subscription be increased to $250.00.
b. The Past Subjunctive Mood occurs
i. After the verb wish to indicate a situation which is unreal or contrary to fact.
• I wish I were a millionaire. (The fact is I am not a millionaire)
• I wish this car belonged to me. (The fact is this car does not belong to me).
ii. After if, to express improbability or unreality in the present.
• If I were you, I would have got admission into this university. (The fact is I am not you)
• If we started now, we could reach the town by 11pm. (But the fact is we could not start now)
iii. After as if/as though, to express improbability or unreality in the present.
• He orders me about as if I were his wife (But I am not)
• He walks around as though he were drunk. (But he is not)