Verbs


Grammar : Verbs

Verbs are the word denoting actions or states.

Examples:

• Mr. Hales takes the class today morning.

What does Mr. Hales do today morning?

He takes the class.

The action he is doing is “taking” the class.

So the action is denoted by the word “takes”. In that case that word “takes” is the verb.

• The Students write their examination in the Lawtey hall.

Here, the word “write” is the verb.

• The university disqualified him.

Here, the word “disqualified” is the verb.

• His friends refused to support him when he was in critical moments.

Here, the word “refused” is the verb.

The verbs can be classified in different methods.

There are four types of verbs.

1. Transitive verbs.

A transitive verb is the verb which takes an object.

2. Intransitive verb.

An intransitive verb is a verb which does not take an object.

3. Auxiliary verb:

A verb which helps another verb to form its tense, voice or mood is called an Auxiliary verb.

4. Modal verbs:

The following verbs are called Modal verbs:.

Shall, should, will, would, may, might, can, could, must, ought and dare are called modal verbs.

Let us see them individually.

1. Transitive verbs:

Examples:

• Mr. Hales takes the class today morning.

By this sentence, Mr. Hales takes the class.

Here………

The word “Mr. Hales” is the noun.

The word “the class” is the object.

The word “takes” is the verb.

Only when all the three words are there, the whole sentence becomes complete and meaningful.

In case the object word is not there, the sentence “Mr. Hales takes” conveys no meaning and

the sentence does not become complete. In that case “what does Mr. Hales take?” is not clear.

So only when the verb “takes” gets an object, the meaning behind the verb “takes” becomes complete.

That means the verb “takes” needs an object to make itself complete.

Such a verb which needs an object is called transitive verb.

That means the action of the verb is transmitted to another noun or another thing.

• They brought the suitcase two days back.

Here the verb “brought” (bring) needs an object to become meaningful.

What was brought?

The suitcase was brought by them.

So the verb “bring” (brought) is a transitive verb.

• My father has written a book which may interest you.
• We are crossing the river by a boat.
• The child is reading English poems clearly.
• An uncivilized man killed John Kennedy.
• She created this structure for our proposed-house.
• My teacher gave me a pen before I entered the exam-hall.
• They sell their properties.

In all the seven sentences given above, the respective verbs

“write”, “cross”, “read”, “kill”, “create”,“give” and “sell”

need their respective objects to make the sentences meaningful.

So, all these verbs are transitive verbs.

Few other “Transitive verbs” are: build, carry, begin, bear,

eat, choose, eat, find, forget, feed, drink, deal, cling, give,

grind, have, hold, make, ride, lend, know, learn, win, steal,

weave, shut, spread etc…

2. Intransitive verbs.

As stated above, an intransitive verb is the verb that does not take an object.

Examples:

• He laughed loudly.

In this sentence, the verb “laughed” does not need an object to complete the sentence.

So the verb “laugh” is an intransitive verb.

• I daily wake up at 5am.

Here the verb “wake” does not need an object for completing itself.

So the verb “wake” is an intransitive verb.

• The ball fell down.

The verb “fell” (fall) is an intransitive verb.

• They are sitting on their cars.

The verb “sitting” (sit) is an intransitive verb.

• The river is winding through the forest.

Here the verb “winding” (wind) is an intransitive verb.

Few verbs go, fall, die, sleep etc are exclusively intransitive.

Few more “Intransitive verbs” are: swim, stand, sit, sink, smite, shine, run, rise, lie, leave, kneel, grow etc…

Notes:

1. Many Transitive verbs can be used as Intransitive verbs as well.

Examples:

a. They fought their enemies. (Transitive verb).

They fought fiercely. (Intransitive verb).

b. He spoke the truth. (Transitive verb).

He spoke to me. (Intransitive verb).

c. The peon rings the bell. (Transitive verb).

The bell rings continuously. (Intransitive verb).

d. He walks. (Transitive verb).

The hostler walks the horse. (Intransitive verb).

e. Birds fly in the air. (Transitive verb).

The observatory flies balloon to study weather. (Intransitive verb).

f. The bulb broke. (Transitive verb).

The students broke the glass. (Intransitive verb).

Another type of verb is called “Auxiliary verb”.

3. Auxiliary verb:

A verb which helps another verb to form its tense, voice or mood is called an Auxiliary verb.

Have, be(am,are,was and were) and do are usually used as auxiliary verbs, they can be used as Main verbs as well.

Examples:

• I have few urgent works. (Main)

They have done very well in the examinations. (Auxiliary)

• God is in Heaven. (Main)

He is liked by all. (Auxiliary)

• The man does his work quietly. (Main)

Did he come here? (Main)

4. Modal verbs:

The following verbs are called Modal verbs.

Shall, should, will, would, may, might, can, could, must, ought and dare are called modal verbs.

SHALL:

When “shall” is used in the second or third person, it has the force of a command, a promise,

a thread, determination, certainty…

i. You shall not go out without my permission.

ii. He shall get my help.

iii. She shall be punished for his mistake.

iv. He shall apologize for his behavior.

v. No man shall take this way.

WILL:

When “will” is used in the first person, it can express (in addition to the future tense) willingness,

a promise, a threat, determination…

i. I will help you.

ii. I will be there in your wedding.

iii. I will not allow him to go.

iv. I will not miss this opportunity.

MAY:

“May” has the force of possibility and permission. In the past tense “might” is used.

i. He may come here.

ii. You may go now.

iii. I believed that he might be honest.

CAN:

“Can” has the force of ability and permission.

i. He can do this work easily.

ii. She can go home.

iii. Everyone can learn this subject.

MUST:

“Must” has the force of compulsion, necessity, determination, duty, certainty of belief, inevitability…

i. Everybody must attend this function.

ii. I must go urgently.

iii. I must have full freedom.

iv. A minister must be honest.

v. She must be made to talk like this.

vi. This building must be demolished in near future.

OUGHT:

“Ought” indicated duty or moral obligation.

i. You ought to be careful.

ii. As the secretary I ought to have attended that meeting.

This verb “ought” must be followed by “to”.

DARE:

“Dare” conveys the force of challenge or the courage to do a thing.

i. He dare not oppose me.

ii. The prime Minister dared the opposition to prove the charge.

NEED:

“Need” has the force of necessity or obligation.

When this verb “need” is used to mean obligation in the negative or interrogative form,

‘s’ is not added to need in the third person singular(present tense).

i. She need not come here.

ii. It need not be white in the Shirt.

iii. He need not have educational qualifications.

For you attention please:

The list of verbs is long one.

Every sentence will have a noun and a verb(predicate as well).

For your kind attention, few verbs have been given below.

1. arise

2. bear

3. beat

4. behold

5. bid

6. bite

7. blow

8. break

9. begin

10. become

11. bind

12. bleed

13. build

14. burn

15. carry

16. catch

17. cling

18. come

19. deal

20. creep

21. do

22. draw

23. drink

24. eat

25. fall

26. feed

27. feel

28. fight

29. find

30. fling

31. flee

32. forbid

33. forget

34. forsake

35. freeze

36. get

37. give

38. grind

39. have

40. hold

41. kneel

42. know

43. lay

44. lead

45. learn

46. leave

47. lend

48. lie

49. loose

50. make

51. mean

52. meet

53. pay

54. read

55. rid

56. ride

57. ring

58. run

59. rise

60. see

61. set

62. shoot

63. sling

64. slit

65. speak

66. slay

67. shake

68. shed

69. slide

70. spin

71. split

72. spring

73. stand

74. wed

75. write

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